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Background Information on Multiple Intelligences

In his groundbreaking 1983 book, Frames of Mind, Harvard professor of education Howard Gardner theorized that people can be smart in a number of ways. He suggests that environments, cultures, and genetic makeups determine how all of our intelligences work together, and which ones become more developed. Gardner eventually came up with a list of eight recognized intelligences:

In 1994, author Thomas Armstrong incorporated Gardner's theory in his book, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom (ASCD, 1994). The checklists we've used in this online questionnaire are from his book.

The information about Multiple Intelligences that appears on each "intelligence page" is adapted from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Developments' (ASCD) Professional Development Online.



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